Ragnok in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein: The Revenge of the Hrimthursar


  • Abigial Ruth Heiniger Wayne State University


Norse Frost Giants


In April 1815, a volcano on the Indonesian island of Tambora erupted, devastating that region and causing a major climate change: 1816 was known in across the Atlantic as the “year without a summer.” While many scholars have interpreted the notorious weather of that year as the catalyst for Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, scholars are only beginning to examine the depth to which that weather penetrated her work. This paper explores the ways that Victor Frankenstein’s creature resembles a Norse weather monster, an Hrimthursar or a frost giant, and examines Shelley’s distinctive message about the trauma of “a year without a summer.”

Author Biography

Abigial Ruth Heiniger, Wayne State University

English Department




How to Cite

Heiniger, A. R. (2011). Ragnok in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein: The Revenge of the Hrimthursar. Journal of Ecocriticism, 3(1), 40–50. Retrieved from https://ojs.unbc.ca/index.php/joe/article/view/234