Tools for integrating environmental objectives into policy and practice: What works where?

Hens Runhaar


An abundance of approaches, strategies, and instruments – in short: tools – have been developed that intend to stimulate or facilitate the integration of a variety of environmental objectives into development planning, na- tional or regional sectoral policies, international agreements, business strategies, etc. These tools include legally mandatory procedures, such as Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment; more voluntary tools such as environmental indicators developed by scientists and planning tools; green budgeting, etc. A relatively underexplored question is what integration tool fits what particular purposes and contexts, in short: “what works where?”. This paper intends to contribute to answering this question, by first pro- viding conceptual clarity about what integration entails, by suggesting and illustrating a classification of integra- tion tools, and finally by summarising some of the lessons learned about how and why integration tools are (not) used and with what outcomes, particularly in terms of promoting the integration of environmental objectives.


policy design, policy implementation, policy tools, policy instruments

Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

@Annual Review of Policy Design ISSN: ISSN 2291-6989