We develop a descriptive framework to facilitate policy instrument evaluation in relation to the low-carbon transition. The framework consists of a stock-taking and mapping analysis based on five questions. Four questions allow the policy maker to take stock of the existing set of instruments and provide a description of the key attributes and incentive of individual instruments. These attributes are subsequently mapped to identifiers of market failures related to the transition. A fifth question considers the coherence of the mix or package of policy instruments that the instruments constitute. The result is an overview of the incentives for firms and households to contribute to the transition towards a decarbonised economy. This can then be used to evaluate whether the set of policy instruments can be improved. We apply our framework to the residential and commercial (buildings) sector in an ambitious country, Austria.